2010-09-12 │中国的富豪家族,主要有三大来源。

作者:逍遥乾坤 | 发表时间:2010-09-12 12:49:04 | 分类:杂七杂八 | 阅读:12446 | 评论:4488
很有必要了解一下,也许这就是资本主义萌生的起源……
其三没有过多的描述,很不好,看来中国的言论还是不那么自由的。
-----------------------------逍遥分界线-----------------------------------
其一为草根崛起。最典型的是浙商和广东商人。其特点是,白手起家,几乎没有任何背景,一步步在激烈竞争中壮大,最后经十年乃至几十年的浸润,造就财富家族。

在浙商中,茅氏商业家庭的茅理翔最初以生产打火机起家,后来其子茅忠群开始进军厨具行业,最后成为行业龙头;其女儿女婿则成为外协厂商,另起炉灶。

在广东商人中,卢氏兄弟历经十多年奋斗,遂造就万和在热水器行业的国内龙头地位,成就了兄弟型的商人大家庭。而在内地,四川希望集团的刘永好几兄弟,也有类似创业经历,不同的是,刘氏兄弟后来分家,形成了泛商业家族。

这类商人,多集中在竞争性产业领域,其从事的行业,多为中国市场化最彻底的行业。

其二为体制内起步,以商人终结,或者本身亦官亦商。

最典型的为苏南商人。其特点是,创始人最开始在体制内谋得执掌一家企业的机会,后来通过改制,成为股份制企业的实际掌控人。

最为典型的,在中国大陆当数TCL的李东生。李本为惠州市政府委派到企业的体制内管理人员,通过增量式改革,最后获得了企业控制权,李亦成为内陆世富。而在青岛,双星总裁汪海也通过改制终于从体制内的经营者,转变为独立的商人。

其三为红色家族。这种类型的商人家族,拥有深厚的政治资本,故起步高,容易获得社会资源。

这些红色商业家族,多从事一些需要审批的贸易、基础产业、能源等产业。房地产行业亦多为红色家族钟情的领域。

新富家族的未来

在中国事实上形成的新富家族,在未来产生的影响,将是多方面的。

在发达的商业国家,商人家族能够持续三代的,非常少见。由于信奉比较完全的市场经济,他们往往面临着激烈的竞争,要保持几代非常困难。

相反,在日本、韩国等东亚国家,由于商人与政治人物的普遍关联,商人家族传承更为久远,韩国的三星集团,已到了第三世,日本的三菱、住友,更是数世传承。中国未来的商业家族,很有可能如日韩。

但日本和韩国的商业豪门,在近几年中,频频出现危机,足可为中国新富家族所鉴。现代集团的崛起,离不开政治势力的扶持,但是,“政治献金”事件,也正是由于介入政治过深引起。在日本亦如此,而被称为“新时代首相”的鸠山,其使命之一,就是铲除政商铁三角。

先天的出身差异,则必然造成人生成就的差异。出身豪门家族,在人生的起点上,就赢了第一步。小超人李泽楷在电讯盈科危机重重的时候,也可以靠其父李嘉诚在背后买单安然度过危机。而多数无背景的企业家,资金一出问题只有死掉。

特别是在一些需要大资产及政策扶持的特殊行业,有政治背景的大家族,更是占尽先天优势,在另外一个意义上说,其实也是一种不公平。有无政治背景,而非有无经营才能,成为进入某些领域的衡量标准,客观上阻挡了大众创造财富的机会。

在国外,防止商业大族事实上的世袭与垄断主要有两大途径,其一是高额的遗产税,其二是限制政治与商业的结盟。

在未来,要防止中国形成事实上的家庭势力垄断,以上两大方法,足资借鉴。

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